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The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030) is an international document adopted by United Nations Member States between 14 and 18 March 2015 at the World Conference on Disaster Reduction in Sendai, Japan, and endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly in June 2015. [25] [26] [27] This is the successor agreement to the Hyogo Framework for Action (2005-2015), which has so far been the most comprehensive international agreement on disaster reduction. Two regimes have been established within the framework of the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, managed by the United Nations Office for Disaster Reduction and endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly. This was the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters (HFA) and its successor, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. Unlike most environmental regimes, HFA and Sendai Framework have only had to be adopted and not ratified by national parliaments because they deal with a rather harmless problem in which countries strive to reduce their own disaster risk and losses. There are no vast opportunities for parasitism (with the exception of the use of international early warning and research systems) often linked to international environmental challenges. In this way, the two frameworks are only intended to take stock of the national status of the DRR and to propose other activities and to provide a forum for the exchange and dissemination of knowledge, given that the problem in question is characterized by a high degree of uncertainty as to the impact and frequency of risks, given the complex interactions between socio-economic and socio-environmental developments. Footnote 7 Both frameworks are therefore self-intrusive agreements that require participants not to do anything in their own interest (Hafner-Burton, al. 2011).

In summary, all of these regimes share the characteristics of soft law along many of the dimensions of precision, commitment, and delegation proposed by Abbott et al. (2000). This is what differentiates it from previous environmental agreements, such as the Montreal Protocol, the gold standard for environmental regimes signed in 1987, which introduced clear obligations (prohibition of certain substances) with precise rules (management and enforcement approach including transparency, dialogue and sanctions for non-participants) while introducing delegation (compliance by reporting to the UNEP secretariat on ozone). with sanction mechanisms) (Albrecht and Parker 2019). UNFCCC. (2015). Paris Convention. Paris: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. unfccc.int/files/essential_background/convention/application/pdf/english_paris_agreement.pdf.

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